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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 76-78

Assessment of oral health knowledge and effectiveness of health education technique among 12–13-year-old schoolchildren of Bhairahawa, Nepal: An interventional study


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saraswati Dhanwantari Dental College, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, People’s Dental Academy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, HKDET’s Dental College and Hospital, Humnabad, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission18-May-2021
Date of Acceptance04-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication27-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nilesh Arjun Torwane
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saraswati Dhanwantari Dental College, Pathri Rd, Parbhani, Parbhani 431401, Maharashtra.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INJO.INJO_18_21

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  Abstract 

Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among 12-year-old schoolchildren studying in Nepal. The ultimate goal was to implement an oral health-promotion program in this area. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 children were included in this study. All the participants were requested to complete a 10-question closed-ended questionnaire. The statistical significance of any difference between the pre-intervention and post-intervention of oral health education was determined using the chi-square test. Results: Approximately 65.5% of students said that purpose of tooth brushing was for brighter teeth. Approximately 77.8% did not know the meaning of dental plaque, but after oral health education intervention 67.6% knew that meaning of dental plaque as soft deposits on teethConclusion: On the basis of the findings of this study, the knowledge of the surveyed children with regard to oral health is poor and showed better results post intervention. Hence, there is a need for regular oral health education for the children.

Keywords: Health education, oral health knowledge, schoolchildren


How to cite this article:
Torwane NA, Dayma A, Hongal S. Assessment of oral health knowledge and effectiveness of health education technique among 12–13-year-old schoolchildren of Bhairahawa, Nepal: An interventional study. Int J Oral Care Res 2021;9:76-8

How to cite this URL:
Torwane NA, Dayma A, Hongal S. Assessment of oral health knowledge and effectiveness of health education technique among 12–13-year-old schoolchildren of Bhairahawa, Nepal: An interventional study. Int J Oral Care Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 29];9:76-8. Available from: https://www.ijocr.org/text.asp?2021/9/3/76/326813




  Introduction Top


Oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence. Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related behavior. The 2004 National Pathfinder Survey of Nepal shows that 58% of 5–6-year-old schoolchildren experienced dental caries.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] The community-based oral health promotion approach is a way to address poor oral health where human and financial resources are limited. Schools offer the ideal setting to reach millions of children and ensure strong foundations for a healthy life at an early stage. Healthy school policies can assist in improving the oral health of children and invariable attainment of holistic health and some evidence exists for the long-term positive impact on oral health in integrating oral health promotion into the school curriculum.[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] Therefore, the aim and objective of this study was to assess oral health knowledge and effectiveness of health education technique among 12–13-year-old schoolchildren of Bhairahawa, Nepal


  Materials and Methods Top


This was an interventional study conducted on the available population of 108 subjects aged 12–13 years from the school of Bhairahawa, Nepal to evaluate the effectiveness of health education among children. All procedures performed in the study were conducted in accordance with the ethics standards given in 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2013. The study proposal was submitted for approval and clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of our institution. A written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Official permission was obtained from school authorities. To select children, convince sampling was followed. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The authors used a 10-item, custom-designed, closed-ended questionnaire developed based on various literature sources. The validation of the questionnaire was regulated and supervised by means of face validation, content validation, reliability, and consistency test.


  Result Top


The questionnaire was filled by a total of 108 children in both the age groups: 52 (48.1%) children in 12-year age group and 56 (51.8%) in 13-year age group. The questionnaire focused on the following segments: purpose of teeth brushing, gum bleeding suggests, method of preventing of gum bleeding, meaning of dental plaque, meaning of tooth decay, brushing prevent caries, fluoridated toothpaste prevent caries, importance of mouth rinsing after meals, tobacco causes cancer, pit, and fissure sealants. With the chi-square test, in all the questionnaire pre and post intervention statistically significant result was recorded (P < 0.001). Approximately 65.5% of students said that the purpose of tooth brushing was for brighter teeth. Approximately 77.8% of students did not know the meaning of dental plaque but after oral health education intervention 67.6% of them knew that meaning of dental plaque as soft deposits on teeth [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of population according to knowledge with pre- and post intervention

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  Discussion Top


In this study, it was found that there was an increase in the oral health knowledge among the subjects after intervention and an improvement was also observed in children. Hebbal et al.[8] conducted a study to evaluate the knowledge oral health education in schoolchildren. They had compared the effectiveness of dental health education techniques. The authors found statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of the participants. A study by Goel et al.[7] to assess the relative improvement in the knowledge achieved after imparting Dental Health Education to school students of various socioeconomic groups and the long-term effectiveness of conventional (one-time) lecture technique revealed that the Dental Health Education program was effective in improving the knowledge levels of most students. Majority of the students did not know the meaning of dental plaque and tooth decay at baseline. By the end of the study, more than 60% knew the meaning of plaque and approximately 50% of the children acknowledged dental caries to be caused by bacteria. In addition, approximately 80% of the students agreed that caries can be prevented by maintaining good oral hygiene. Our findings were similar to the findings obtained by Smyth et al.[10]


  Conclusion Top


This study showed that Dental health education programs conducted by intervention technique were more effective in oral health knowledge of 12–13-year-old schoolchildren. The dentist’s communication skills also played a vital role in behavior guidance in advanced technique. Dentists can serve as role models in the community. Their role in instilling positive habits in pupil’s life is paramount and thus can best optimize the communication and knowledge of children.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Petersen PE, Hoerup N, Poomviset N, Prommajan J, Watanapa A. Oral health status and oral health behaviour of urban and rural schoolchildren in southern Thailand. Int Dent J 2001;51:95-102.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Yee R, Mishra P. Nepal oral National Pathfinder Survey 2004. Int Dent J 2006;56:196-02.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Petersen PE, Kwan S. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention––WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice. Community Dent Health 2004;21:319-29.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sheiham A, Alexander D, Cohen L, Marinho V, Moysés S, Petersen PE, et al. Global oral health inequalities: Task group––implementation and delivery of oral health strategies. Adv Dent Res 2011;23:259-67.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
WHO’s Global School Health Initiative. Health-Promoting Schools: A Healthy Setting for Living, Learning and Working. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
WHO Information Series on School Health. Document 11. Oral Health Promotion: An Essential Element of a Health Promoting School. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Goel P, Sehgal M, Mittal R. Evaluating the effectiveness of school-based dental health education program among children of different socioeconomic groups. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23:131-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.
Hebbal M, Ankola AV, Vadavi D, Patel K. Evaluation of knowledge and plaque scores in school children before and after health education. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2011;8:189-96.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mehta A, Kaur G. Oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among 12-year-old schoolchildren studying in rural areas of Panchkula, India. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23:293.  Back to cited text no. 9
  [Full text]  
10.
Smyth E, Caamano F, Fernández-Riveiro P. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and practice in 12-year-old schoolchildren. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2007;12:E614-20.  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
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   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Result
  Discussion
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