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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 71-95

Online since Monday, September 27, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

SNA and SNB measurements: A comparative assessment between measurements in conventional 2D cephalogram and 3D cone-beam computed tomography-generated values p. 71
Bikash Ranjan Das, Pradeep Jain, Nikita Modi, Priyanka Soni, Dipayan Datta, Adrika De
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_20_21  
Background: The aim of the investigation was to clearly locate subspinale (point A) and supramentale (point B) on three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and to compare the angular and linear measurements that are dependent on these anatomic landmarks with two-dimensional (2D) manual and digital cephalometric tracings. Materials and Methods: A sample of 30 North Indian subjects between 13 and 22 years of age who required CBCT imaging for treatment planning was taken. For each patient, standardized film and digital cephalograms were taken. Standardized head positioning was done for CBCT imaging. The following four groups were evaluated for statistical analysis: Group 1: Dolphin, Group 2: CBCT, Group 3: Manual tracing 1, and Group 4: Manual tracing 2. Analysis of variance was applied to find out the differences in parameters among groups. Results: The results showed that the differences between most of the measurements derived from the landmarks identified on film and digital 2D cephalometric radiographs compared with CBCT-derived cephalograms were statistically significant. Point A, which is difficult to locate on 2D cephalograms, could be identified and measured accurately and more reliably on 3D CBCT-generated cephalograms. Conclusion: 3D CBCT-generated cephalograms can be successfully used for accurate and reliable cephalometric analyses.
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Assessment of oral health knowledge and effectiveness of health education technique among 12–13-year-old schoolchildren of Bhairahawa, Nepal: An interventional study p. 76
Nilesh Arjun Torwane, Ashwini Dayma, Sudheer Hongal
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_18_21  
Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among 12-year-old schoolchildren studying in Nepal. The ultimate goal was to implement an oral health-promotion program in this area. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 children were included in this study. All the participants were requested to complete a 10-question closed-ended questionnaire. The statistical significance of any difference between the pre-intervention and post-intervention of oral health education was determined using the chi-square test. Results: Approximately 65.5% of students said that purpose of tooth brushing was for brighter teeth. Approximately 77.8% did not know the meaning of dental plaque, but after oral health education intervention 67.6% knew that meaning of dental plaque as soft deposits on teethConclusion: On the basis of the findings of this study, the knowledge of the surveyed children with regard to oral health is poor and showed better results post intervention. Hence, there is a need for regular oral health education for the children.
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Paradigm shift in dental practice ergonomics during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its effects on dental practitioners of Kerala: A cross-sectional study p. 79
Mridula Parameswaran, Remya P Mohanan, Kannamkottapilly C Prajitha, Vivekanandan G Sam Joseph, Janardhanan Sreeja
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_24_21  
Introduction: Dental practitioners, being the highest risk category of healthcare workers for contracting COVID-19, are required to practice in compliance with the revised infection control guidelines as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the compliance of general dental practitioners of Kerala toward the CDC infection control guidelines, especially personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and if such modifications had any effect on the occurrence of musculoskeletal (MS) pain, accessibility, visibility, and overall operator efficiency. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire prepared in Google forms was conducted among 49 dental practitioners across Kerala who were selected by simple random sampling. Data were entered into Excel sheets, and analysis of data was done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 25.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results: There was a statistically significant (P-value=.001) increase in the usage of PPE from 20.8% (n = 10) during the pre-COVID period to 67.3% (n = 33) during the pandemic. About 85.7% (n = 42) of the practitioners reported to have difficulty using PPE mostly attributed to decreased visibility, accessibility, and communication gap. About 67.3% (n = 33) of the participants experienced an onset or increase in MS pain while practicing with PPE, head and neck region (81.8%, n = 27) being most affected. About 32.7% (n = 16) of the dental practitioners did not receive any form of training to work with PPE, and 56.5% (n = 26) were physically strained, whereas 43.5% (n = 20) were physically and emotionally strained while working with PPE. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that lack of proper training, cumbersome nature of PPE, long procedures demanding increased accessibility and visibility, and extra time spent on donning and doffing have all added to increased strain on dental practitioners and occurrence of MS pain and affected their operative efficiency.
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A study to measure nasopharyngeal airway space in different facial morphological patterns between both genders p. 83
Vijaysinh Ramchandra Tanpure, SV Kalavani, Firoz Babu Palagiri, K Bhagyalakshmi, Satish Babu Devaki
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_27_21  
Background: Studies in the past have assessed relation between airway and type of malocclusion and found no association between rhinomanometric measures of airway adequacy and type of malocclusion or craniofacial morphology. Hence, the present study was undertaken to test whether there is any association between pharyngeal airway and type of malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into three groups based on skeletal pattern with 20 subjects in each group: Group 1 with Class I skeletal pattern, Group 2 with Class II skeletal pattern, and Group 3 with Class III skeletal pattern. All the cephalograms were taken in natural head position. Results: When compared between males and females among these groups, significant differences were observed in Group 1 in the following parameters: lower airway thickness (PNS-Ba), upper airway thickness (PNS-AD2), and upper airway thickness (PNS-H), and the total nasopharyngeal area was more in males than in females and differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: It was concluded that significant differences were observed in Group 1 in the following parameters: lower airway thickness (PNS-Ba), upper airway thickness (PNS-AD2), and upper airway thickness (PNS-H), and the total nasopharyngeal area was more in males than in females and differences were statistically significant.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

The nexus between mucormycosis and COVID-19: A review p. 86
Sheetal K Raju, Raghavendra S Kurdekar, V Jeevan Prakash, Ashish Vyas, Sugandha Arya
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_22_21  
Mucormycosis is a disease of the diseased. Infection arises through inhalation of spores, contamination of the traumatized tissue, ingestion, and direct inoculation. High incidence of mucormycosis is seen in uncontrolled diabetic or immuno-compromised patients. Recently, its appearance has been linked with the COVID-19-affected individuals who are being treated by excess steroids or on other immunosuppressants and those with history of systemic disease. Therefore, for successful management, excessive steroids and immunosuppressive drugs should be avoided in mild cases of COVID-19.
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Sample size determination simplified: A review p. 90
Nilesh Arjun Torwane, Venkat Raman Singh, Ashwini Dayma
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_19_21  
Researchers active in clinical, epidemiological, or translational research have the aim to publish their outcomes so that they can generalize their findings to the population. The sample size decision should be based on the difference in the result between the two groups analyzed as in an analytical subject field. It should also be based on the acceptable P value for statistical significance and the expected statistical power to test a hypothesis. Therefore, the purpose of sample size planning is to calculate an appropriate number of subjects for a specified survey design. This article accounts the concepts in calculating the sample size.
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Coronavirus disease and its oral implications: A diagnostic realm p. 93
Sandeep Saurabh, Juzer Saifuddin Miyajiwala, Sukriti Paul, Sugandha Arya, Ashlesha Gogoi, Juhi Soni
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_26_21  
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the type of β-coronavirus that is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic across the world. Human-to-human transmission of this disease may occur through respiratory droplets, sneezing, and touch. The most common symptoms of patients include fever, fatigue, dry cough, and diarrhea. Dysgeusia is the first recognized oral symptom. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction remains the standard test along with chest X-rays as the first-line imaging modality for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Despite many treatment options are under trial still none of these can control its virulence potential.
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